The Relationship Between Religiosity Of Kazakh Women And Attitudes Toward Political, Financial, And Social Elements In Modern-day Kazakhstan

The first and second questions about use of condom in steady relationship respectively with informal partners were designed to evaluate the women’s precise apply of condom. The third query regarding responsibility for condom use is a question concerning the women’s angle. Vertical transmission of HIV from mother-to-baby accounts for the overwhelming majority of the infections among the children. Mother-to-youngster HIV transmission occurs intrauterine, intra-partum and during breastfeeding. Without antiretroviral therapy, the risk of an contaminated woman transmitting the virus to her youngster is between sixteen and forty%. Timely administration of antiretroviral medication to the HIV infected pregnant woman and her new child significantly reduces the chance of mom-to-child transmission . With antiretroviral treatment resulting in low viral load, no breastfeeding and elective Caesarean the HIV transmission fee to the kid could be decreased to zero–2% .

She traveled to her native southern Kazakhstan and found some felting consultants who agreed to come teach the women of Zarshiganak. Almost all the women in our research had heard of a illness referred to as HIV/AIDS. The women’s knowledge, however, was somewhat superficial and lots of could not specify their solutions. Still, a lot of the women managed to establish sexual contacts and intravenous drug/needle sharing as major routs of transmission. The knowledge among pregnant women in Semey was similar to the knowledge among pregnant women in Aksu, northwest China. Our conclusion is, as within the examine performed in Aksu, that a lot of the women know that HIV is a sexually transmitted disease, but there are still individuals who have poor information of HIV/AIDS and other people with misconceptions about how it is spread.

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This program, funded by the US Department of State, has brought US-based mostly specialists on home violence response, researchers of gender issues and consultants from local NGOs in Kazakhstan collectively to enhance police training on domestic violence. Kazakhstan is a area where women are traditionally anticipated to play the archetypal function of keep-at-residence moms, but they contribute an enormous quantity to the nation’s GDP, says Anton Kim, head of marketing, ForteBank. One of the villagers, a woman named Aiman, proved to be a gifted felter. PHOTOGRAPH BY RYAN BELL (@comradecowboys)With their new abilities, the ladies worked all year long, making felt products. When they’d enough to promote, Kalimash and her good friend Aiman, the village’s greatest craftswoman, took a taxi to Pavlodar the place they set up a stand on the weekend bazar. With the cash, they went to the store and acquired supplies they hadn’t seen at home for yr, and a few treats, like baggage of sugar. Sultanbeck’s workshop inspired her to assist develop her village’s economic system.

Many people have protested the ban on religious wear in colleges because ladies would not be allowed to wear head-scarves. In the recent years, the speed of suicides amongst ladies has begun to increase. The group most affected is young women in rural communities for causes together with early marriages, a scarcity of societal acceptance of reproductive rights, and being pregnant outdoors of marriage. The web enrollment fee for ladies in main college is ninety nine.9 percent, and the progression of women from main to secondary college hovers around one hundred pc. In reality, educational attainment for girls in Kazakhstan is greater than that for men. In 2014, a examine revealed that 28 p.c of girls went on to tertiary education as compared to 23 % of men.

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Law enforcement and navy careers are considered non-traditional fields for women. It is estimated that somewhere between 6-12% of cops in Kazakhstan are women. In 1999 a devoted domestic violence unit was established in Kazakhstan, however as a result of limited training and sources, this program didn’t meet expectations and local demand. Recently, Florida State University has been working with the Ministry of Interior of Kazakhstan and the Almaty City Police Department to supply prime quality training on domestic violence.

Somewhat extra, 86%, were ready to take medicine, but fewer women, 68%, had been ready to just accept Caesarean part to stop mother-to-baby transmission. The open question “Do you know any signs of HIV/AIDS” was left clean by 111 women. Among the ladies who could point out any signs the commonest solutions were fever/sub febrile 37% (13/35), lack of immunity 34% (12/35), weakness 29% (10/35) and cahexia/weight loss 17% (6/35). Their ages ranged from 18 to forty seven years, with a imply age of 26.8 and a median age of 25. Thirteen women did not answer the question about their age; therefore these women were excluded after we referred our outcomes to age. Parity ranged from 0 to four youngsters, with a imply of 0.68 and a median of 1 baby.

Elective Caesareans are most important for ladies with high HIV viral masses on the time of delivery. Cybercrime is expected to triple the variety of job openings over the following 5 years. “Women in Cybersecurity” will open new alternatives for women and will be replicated in neighboring nations of Central Asia in collaboration with local and worldwide women growth organizations. Recently, a ban on sporting spiritual symbols in school has had a robust impression on women as the majority of Kazakhstan practices Islam.

These misconceptions could affect the dissemination patterns of HIV and improve the stigmatization of the HIV optimistic, in addition to giving rise to misguided fears. It is essential to continue to boost the extent of information of HIV/AIDS through campaigns in the media and at schools. One factor that needs to be communicated is that there is no drugs to cure a HIV an infection, only forty% (ninety five% CI 33–forty seven) of the ladies answered correctly that this was the case. This may replicate that the details about HIV/AIDS within the media focus on danger behaviour and not on potential remedy. In addition the prevalence of HIV is low in Kazakhstan and few of the women collaborating in our study had met or knew anyone with the an infection i.e. they’ve never come throughout individuals under remedy for HIV/AIDS. This is considerably decrease than the corresponding determine for the ladies in the Hong Kong study, where 79% (95% CI seventy three–84) answered no to the assertion that there are medicines obtainable to remedy HIV/AIDS.

Among the women who stated no to have extra kids 82% (176/216), the primary purpose given was the risk of infecting the child. Significantly more extremely educated women mentioned no, 87% (95% CI eighty one–ninety two), to having more youngsters as compared with the less educated women, sixty six% (ninety five% CI fifty three–79). Of the responders 83%, have been ready to not breastfeed their baby in the event that they had been discovered to be HIV optimistic.

The far most typical group was drug addicts/intravenous drug users, mentioned by 88% (forty nine/56) of the responders. Other groups, given by lower than 10% every, were individuals with many sexual companions, prostitutes, homeless folks, gay individuals, medical people, individuals with low social standing, and folks with out information about kazakhstan girls the illness and blood donors/recipients. One false impression was that eleven% (6/fifty six) of the responders answered that individuals with poor immune defence techniques/organisms are more often infected. Seven women mentioned they’d want to have more children even when they were discovered to be HIV optimistic.

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The pregnant women in Ghana additionally considerably extra usually, 90% (ninety five% CI 86–93), answered no to the statement that there are medicines/treatment available to treatment HIV/AIDS. However, it’s also essential that the data is correct, in any other case misconceptions could result in additional stigmatization. Because the ladies had difficulties distinguish HIV from AIDS and only 16% might point out symptoms of HIV/AIDS, we conclude that the ladies’s knowledge in general was superficial with little understanding of the main points and the nature of the disease. We were happy to search out that as many as seventy six% answered you could not inform by taking a look at a person if she/he’s contaminated with HIV/AIDS. The younger women, as in contrast with the older women, significantly extra often answered no to this question. This may be defined by the fact that these days students received a lot more info in school. Of our responders forty seven% (ninety three/198) answered that certain teams of individuals are extra typically contaminated with HIV than others.